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History of Twisp, Washington

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The Methow Valley literally has its roots in Twisp, whose origins stretch back to two short-lived gold booms in 1858 and 1880. But it wasn't until August 5, 1897, that Henry C. Glover established Gloversville (now Twisp) as the first recorded town plat in the Methow.

Five months later, on January 22, 1898, Twisp was officially a name on the map, just nine years after Washington Territory became the 42nd state.

The word Twisp is a modification of the native-American word, "T-wapsp", which means "yellow Jacket", and "Twistsp", which means "sound of the buzzing wasp". The sunflower capital of the state and the eastern gateway to the North Cascades National Park, Twisp was largely dependent upon logging until the mid-1980s. In 1941, Otto Wagner established the Twisp-Wagner Lumber Company in Twisp, which eventually employed 400 people. Today, the principal industries include lumber, cattle ranching, agriculture, and tourism.

One of the most influential natural events to occur in Twisp was the flood of 1948, which caused more than $4 million in damages and completely destroyed three state highway bridges as well as extensively damaging six others. Another significant natural event which forever changed the Methow Valley was the great freeze of 1968, when temperatures were recorded at 50¼F below 0. That freeze killed many of the Valley's orchards, most of which were never re-planted.

Other significant dates in the history of Twisp are:

1903 - Joshua Risley opens the Twisp Opera House.

1911 - The eight-room Twisp High School, now the Community Center, is built with bricks made locally from red clay found on the hillside near the Loup Highway Junction of Hwy. 20 and 153.

1911 - The Methow Valley attempts to form its own county with Twisp as the county seat, but the legislative bill never makes it out of committee.

1941 - An addition is made to the Twisp High School.

1972 - The North Cascades Highway (Highway 20) is completed, connecting the Methow Valley to the west side of the state. Tourism becomes a major industry for Twisp and the neighboring towns in the Methow.

July 4, 1997 - Twisp celebrated its centennial birthday.
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Twisp was originally platted in 1897, and officially incorporated on August 13, 1909.

The town of Twisp Washington, whose origins stretch back to two short-lived gold booms in 1858 and 1880. But it wasn't until August 5, 1897, that Henry C. Glover established Gloversville (now Twisp) as the first recorded town plat in the Methow.

Five months later, on January 22, 1898, Twisp was officially a name on the map, just nine years after Washington Territory became the 42nd state.

The word Twisp is a modification of the native-American word, "T-wapsp", which means "yellow Jacket", and "Twistsp", which means "sound of the buzzing wasp". The sunflower capital of the state and the eastern gateway to the North Cascades National Park, Twisp was largely dependent upon logging until the mid-1980s. In 1941, Otto Wagner established the Twisp-Wagner Lumber Company in Twisp, which eventually employed 400 people. Today, the principle industries include lumber, cattle ranching, agriculture, the Forest Service Headquarters and tourism. In 1994 Twisp was noted as one of the '100 Best Small Art Towns in America.' by John Villani. It continues to be a magnet for artists and art enthusiasts, and excellent exhibits and performances draw audiences year round.

One of the most influential natural events to occur in Twisp was the flood of 1948, which caused more than $4 million in damages and completely destroyed three state highway bridges as well as extensively damaged six others. Another significant natural event which forever changed the Methow Valley was the great freeze of 1968, when temperatures were recorded at 50¼F below 0. That freeze killed many of the Valley's orchards, most of which were never re-planted.
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History of Okanogan County

Okanogan County, often called The Okanogan, is home to 38,400 people including members of the Colville Confederated Tribes on the Colville Indian Reservation. The area was one of the last in Washington settled by whites because of its remoteness, but it was an early thoroughfare for prospectors en route to gold fields in British Columbia. In the twenty-first century, the county earns its living from agriculture and forestry with tourism offering additional opportunities. Grand Coulee Dam, the largest producer of electricity in the U.S., sits astride the Columbia River at the county's southern boundary.

The Okanogan Valley is a drained by a tributary of the Columbia River flowing out of British Columbia. The international boundary cuts across Lake Osooyos, which feeds the Okanogan River. The Canadian valley is spelled Okanagan. In the 77 miles between the lake and the Columbia River, the river drops just 125 feet, giving the route to the north an easy grade for travelers and vehicles, with plenty of fresh water and grass for stock. The Methow ("Met-how") Valley is another tributary of the Columbia flowing out of the Cascades. Okanogan County is 5,281 square miles in size with as much as 70 percent owned by the state and federal governments. The west half of the Colville Indian Reservation occupies the southeast corner.

First Peoples

For at least several hundred years prior to contact with Europeans, the indigenous peoples of The Okanogan consisted of three major bands of a group called the Northern Okanogans or Sinkaietk, the Tokoratums, the Kartars, and the Konkonelps. They spoke as many as seven dialects of the Interior Salishan or Interior Salish language related to the languages of Puget Sound tribes, but very different from the other languages of the Columbia basin.

The Okanogans led a semi-nomadic existence, starting in permanent camps through the winter, then leaving to hunt bears in the spring, catch salmon in the summer, and hunt deer in the autumn. One of the most prolific fisheries was at Kettle Falls where the Columbia dropped as much as 20 feet. Women gathered any of 100 varieties of nuts, roots, and berries. Permanent camps consisted of teepee-like longhouses covered with hides, bark, and particularly tules, which grew along water courses. Each house was 12 to 15 feet wide and as long as 150 feet, housing a dozen or more people. Summer huts were covered with transportable mats woven from tules.

The Okanogans traded with other tribes to the south and across the Cascades to the west. In the late 1700s, the Okanogans acquired horses from other tribes both for transportation and for food. In 1782-1783, a smallpox epidemic may have cost the lives of a third to a half of the people in the Okanogan.

Contact

William Clark of the (Lewis and Clark expedition) Corps of Discovery was the first to map the Okanogan River based on his interviews of Indians at the mouth of the Snake River in 1805. David Thomson of the North West Company was the first European to visit the Okanogan River when his expedition paddled past the mouth down the Columbia in July 1811. A few months later, David Stuart and Alexander Ross of the American Pacific Fur Co. built a log cabin at the mouth and called it Fort Okanogan. This became a base for trading goods for beaver pelts collected from the north by Indians. Fort Okanogan was taken over by the North West Co. in 1814, which sold it to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821. The paths up the river became the Okanogan Trail.

Territorial Governor Issac Stevens (1818-1862) signed the Walla Walla Treaty with tribes of the Columbia Basin in May 1855. He regarded the Yakima Chief Kamiakin as representing the Okanogan bands to the north, even though Kamiakin did not even speak their language. Stevens met, but never signed treaties with the northern tribes before war between the Indians and the whites broke out. The Indian War of 1855-1856 did not really touch the tribes of The Okanogan.

Gold strikes in New Caledonia -- the Okanagan (Canadian spelling) and Fraser River valleys of British Columbia -- in 1858 attracted prospectors from California to the region by way of the Columbia River. These incursions triggered Okanogan County's one battle of the Indian wars, an ambush of a 160-member party of miners at a defile called McLoughlin Canyon (named for the leader of the party) on July 29, 1858. Three miners died and several more were wounded. The U.S. Army launched a punitive expedition into the valley, but they turned back without finding anyone to punish. The following spring, the Army established Fort Colville at Mill Creek in the Colville Valley.

The boundary between the U.S. and Canada ran through Lake Osoyoos and was marked only with a Canadian customs station at what would become the town of Osoyoos. As miners discovered gold and silver, a precise boundary was needed to clarify claims. From 1858 to 1861, surveyors from the Royal Engineers and the U.S. Army established a boundary starting at Point Roberts and running to Montana. The location of the border was determined sometimes through scientific calculation and sometimes through consensus and compromise. The engineers cut a 60-foot swath through timber and erected stone markers to mark their survey. Since most of the traffic was northbound in the early years, the U.S. did not establish a Customs Port of Entry until 1880.

Pioneers

The honor of being the first American to settle Okanogan County falls to one of two men, Hiram Francis "Okanogan" Smith (1829-1893) or John Utz (b. 1824). Utz was a "shadowy backwoodsman" (Wilson, 67) and moved on, but Smith stayed to became a prominent commercial and political leader, so Smith is often identified as the county's First Citizen. In the 1850s and 1860s, few pioneers made their homes in The Okanogan, but many miners arrived to dig gold and silver. With the departure of the Hudson's Bay Company, former employees took up farming in the Colville Valley.

The Okanogan tribe and other tribes of north central Washington Territory never signed treaties ceding their lands to the U.S. Government. In 1871, Congress authorized the president to establish reservations by executive order and Ulysses Grant created the Colville Indian Reservation in 1872. This was to be home to about 4,200 Methows, Okanogans, San Poils, Nespelems, Lakes, Colvilles, Calispels, Spokanes, and Coeur d'Alenes. White settlers whose homes fell within the vast area protested and had the Colville Valley in the east subtracted. At one time, all of today's Okanogan County was an Indian Reservation. But miners and settlers lobbied the government relentlessly until the reservation was reduced in 1886 to the contemporary Colville Indian Reservation, home to the Colville Confederated Tribes.

Gold! Silver!

Once Indian title to most of the Okanogan had been extinguished in 1886, miners were free to exploit the gold and silver there. The ensuing mining boom saw the founding of Ruby City (later Ruby), Conconully, Solver, Loop Loop, Oro (later Oroville), and other camps, and the construction of some substantial mines and stamping mills. Chesaw comes from the Chinese chee-saw or good farmer and a cordial host and is the only municipality in the U.S. named after a Chinese. In 1890, the non-Indian population of the county numbered 1,509.

The end of the boom came with the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, the drop in the price of silver, and the Panic of 1893. Mining continued to be an important activity into the twentieth century, but Okanogan County was never more than fourth in gold production in the state.

Home Rule

American settlers in the Willamette Valley had included The Okanogan in the Vancouver District of Oregon in 1844, then as Clark County in 1845. In 1854, the Washington Territorial Legislature placed the Okanogan Valley in Walla Walla County. In 1860, made it part of Spokane County. The legislature created Stevens County in 1863 out of Spokane and in 1864, Stevens annexed its old parent Spokane.

In 1887, Colville was the county seat of Stevens County. Anyone needing to register or change a title to land had to travel days to the courthouse. Okanogan ranchers Cullen Bryant Bash, Henry Wellington, and school teacher and miner David Gubser organized a petition drive for a separate county. Bash delivered it to the Territorial Legislature and worked hard to get it passed. On February 2, 1888, Okanogan County came into being. In 1899, the State Legislature carved Chelan County off the south to establish Okanogan's final boundaries.

Ruby was the first county seat, but voters moved the seat to Conconully after eight months. In 1914, after periodic attempts at a new county seat, voters decided that Okanogan would be home to the courthouse.

Settlement

Since most of the county was Indian land through the 1880s, formal surveys did not begin until 1893 and would take 12 years to complete. Impatient settlers squatted on unsurveyed Indian land. They defied officials who might evict them when their claims conflicted with legal homesteads, so most of the squatters rights came to be recognized as valid. The population almost tripled from 1890 to 1900 and almost tripled again by 1910 as homesteaders moved in, not so much by prairie schooner, but by train. In 1913, migrants made the trip from St. Paul to Spokane in two-and-a-half days. Fifty years before, the journey had taken six months or more. Once the new arrivals took up their claims, they could take title by residing there for five years and improving it and by paying a $15 fee.

Water

Although grass and field crops naturally flourished with the 12 to 13 inches of annual rainfall, orchards required additional water. Pioneer Hiram Smith irrigated an orchard near Lake Osoyoos in the 1860s. In the 1880s, squatters in the Okanogan and Methow valleys dug ditches individually and as associations. In 1908, Congress passed the Reclamation Act (Newlands Act), which got the Federal Government into the ditch business. At first, the bureaucrats deemed The Okanogan too small for their trouble, but finally approved $500,000 for the first Bureau of Reclamation project in Washington.

Between 1907 and 1910, engineers built an earthen dam, which formed Conconully Lake, and the first water irrigated 2,000 acres that orchardists had painstakingly planted with apple saplings. Until the water flowed, they had carried buckets of water to keep each young tree alive. Seven years later, the first apples shipped from the project. In 1919, this became the Okanogan Irrigation District. The soil proved to be much more absorbent than planned and the project never achieved the dream of 10,000 acres of orchards.

This and other farmer-owned projects often required landowners to sell off most of their original homesteads since, by law, no more than 40 acres per plot could receive water. New arrivals moved in to snap up the smaller, potentially more profitable parcels. It took years for the projects to overcome problems with seepage, washouts, and evaporation, but irrigation transformed The Okanogan.

The federal Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 sought to integrate Indians into American society by giving each tribal member 160 acres of land to farm, and turning the rest of reservation lands over to white settlement. In 1898, the remaining 1.3 million acres of the now diminished Colville Reservation was opened to mineral exploitation. In 1905, a majority of the adult Indians were convinced to relinquish rights to the South Half in order to be paid for the North Half taken from them in the 1880s. Each Indian received $500. In 1916, about a third of the South Half was opened for white settlement and a new land rush.

In 1907, forest reserves owned by the federal government became national forests and the following year, Chelan National Forest was established. In 1911, Okanogan National Forest was split off from the Chelan unit and still holds the majority of land in the county both east and west of the Okanogan Valley.

Transportation

The Okanogan and Columbia rivers were both barriers and thoroughfares depending on the direction of travel and the time of year. Indian canoes ferried people, goods, and animals across the streams, but travel up and down the valleys was mostly by land. Beginning in July 1888, the Pasco-built stern-wheeler City of Ellensburgh, offered service up the Columbia and just up the Okanogan as far as Monse. The Columbia rapids and seasonal drops in the river prevented reliable year-round travel. If rapids were too swift, the crew ran a line to the shore and winched the vessel past the fast water. In the spring, steamboats might reach as far up the Okanogan as McLoughlin Falls. Freight and stage lines connected The Okanogan with points downstream toward Wenatchee and upstream toward Spokane.

Rail service to Okanogan County resulted from James J. Hill's desire to link the transcontinental Great Northern at Spokane Falls to Nelson, B.C., and came to the county not from the south, but from Canada. Between 1902 and 1906, Hill built the Washington & Great Northern, which meandered north and west across the international boundary. In Canada the line was called the Vancouver, Victoria & Eastern.

Trains first reached Molson in the Okanogan Highlands from Spokane on November 2, 1906. County residents clamored for more direct service and finally the Great Northern laid tracks from Oroville south to Pateros by 1913 and to Wenatchee the following year. Twice-daily rail service to Oroville put the steamboats out of business and marked the end of Okanogan County's frontier days. With a rail connection, loggers moved into the county and began to exploit timber resources.

The Great Depression (1929-1939) did not devastate Okanogan County as it did other rural areas in the U.S. Residents already lived fairly simple lives with a high degree of self-sufficiency. Relief programs helped farmers and merchants, and hundreds of men in the Civilian Conservation Corps built roads, trails, campgrounds, fire lookouts, the Salmon Meadows Ski Lodge, and fought fires. The timber industry struggled with falling prices, but since the county did not produce dimensioned lumber for the construction market, demand continued. When the Government raised the price it paid for gold to $35 an ounce, miners returned to the hills either as employees of rejuvenated operations or as independent prospectors.

The big spur to the economy of the county and the state was the construction of Grand Coulee Dam in the south near Coulee City. This part of the county had been bypassed by settlement and quickly became home to 15,000 people. By 1937, unemployment in the county was at 6 percent. Irrigation supplied by the dam enabled the cultivation of a half million acres of arid land.

Modern Times

Cattle ranching led to The Okanogan's most notable celebration and athletic event, the Omak Stampede. This annual rodeo was first held in August 1934. Publicity Chairman Claire F. Pentz proposed a horse race involving a wild plunge down a sandy bluff and across the Okanogan River to the arena. Most riders were Native Americans and the winner received a cash prize, a saddle, and a belt buckle. Winning was a significant accomplishment for residents of the Colville Reservation.

The 55-second, one-fourth-mile Suicide Race became the most popular -- and most controversial -- of the county's annual events. Some horses were injured and a few had to be destroyed. When two 13-year-old riders were hurt, the minimum age was set at 16. Horses had to be five years old. Animal protection advocates persuaded some sponsors to withdraw in the mid-1980s and pressured organizers to stop the event.

In 1999, the race was cancelled when Indian participants boycotted the race over a dispute about parking for their encampment and when the river was too high. The Indians returned the following year along with the protests over cruelty to the horses, but the races still ran.

The late twentieth century saw residents struggle with economic development that would impact its rural way of life. (The county's first stoplight was installed in the early 1980s and the second, for a WalMart, in the mid 1990s.) The construction of State Route 20 (North Cascades Highway) from the Skagit Valley across Okanogan County to the Methow Valley in 1972 ended some of the remoteness of the Methow, at least during the summer months.

In 1968, developers announced plans for a ski resort on Sandy Butte near Mazama in the Methow Valley. In 1978, Methow Recreation, Inc. made formal application for the 3,600-acre Early Winters resort. The project hoped to place Washington ahead of skiing destinations like Colorado and Utah and would produce 1,200 jobs, which might compensate for the decline of the logging industry. But Early Winters would attract an average of 3,500 skiers a day and drastically change the character of quiet, rural area, turning it into something like Vail, Colorado. The Methow Valley Citizens Council organized to block the project and the controversy divided the small community. The matter went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which cleared the way for the project in May 1989.

That same year, Crown Resources, a Denver mining company, discovered gold underneath Buckhorn Mountain near Chesaw and announced plans for the Crown Jewel Mine, an open-pit operation that hoped to extract 1.4 million ounces of gold over eight years. Crown proposed to build Washington's largest open-pit mine, which would generate some 97 million tons of waste and leave a lake in the pit. A process using cyanide would leach the gold out of the ore. Up to 75 high-wage jobs would be created in an area with chronically high unemployment.

The Early Winters project generally prevailed against its opponents in court, but in 1992, financing fell apart and the 1,200 acres of property were auctioned off to pay debts. The concept reemerged in 1996 as a smaller resort called Arrowleaf, with cross-country skiing instead of downhill skiing, and with some community approval. Developers hoped to expand Arrowleaf, but in December 2000 after spending $20 million and years waiting for regulatory approval, they dropped the plan.

A month later in January 2001, The Trust for Public Land purchased 1,020 acres once envisioned for Early Winters and preserved it from development.

Environmental groups opposed the Crown Jewel mine for 10 years. In 1999, U.S. Senator Slade Gorton sought to overturn a Clinton Administration ruling against the project by tacking an amendment onto funding for a military action in Kosovo. The key defeat for the open pit plan was a withdrawal of a State water permit in 2000 because of concerns about the pollution mitigation measures. By that time the price of gold had dropped and the new operators decided to dig an underground mine and to process the ore at an existing facility in Republic, Ferry County.

In 1886 the North Half of the Colville Indian Reservation was thrown open for mineral entry. Hundreds of prospectors flooded in, from boarding houses on the east coast to fancy Chicago hotels, they came from near and wide to stake hundreds of claims within weeks.

Okanogan County: This is the land of Moses, Tonasket, Joseph and Sar-sarp-kin, famous Indian chiefs from another century, and those men of the early west that made a name for themselves in Okanogan County, like Okanogan Smith, Guy Waring, Colonel Tom Hart, Chee Saw and many others. It is the largest and one of the most fascinating counties in the state of Washington.

Okanogan is a Salish Indian word meaning "Rendezvous." Sometimes called "The Late Frontier," the Okanogan Valley saw habitation by Native Americans for thousands of years, and belatedly compared to other regions of the country, saw a succession of explorers, prospectors, miners, trappers, cattlemen, settlers, loggers, farmers, missionaries and orchardists, providing in every respect a colorful history which carries forward to the present day.

From left to right, Chief Moses, Chief Tonasket, Chief Sar-sarp-kin. (Courtesy Okanogan Historical Society)

Here a person only has to use their imagination and they can wander past long forgotten ghost towns and abandoned townsites with colorful names like Ruby, Bodie, Loop Loop and Silver just to mention a few.

There is much to hold the passerby, legends of hidden gold and long lost mines, several of them still searched for by treasure hunters and others intrigued by the age old quest for gold, and some of the historic boom towns of yesteryear, places like Nighthawk, Loomis, Old Molson and Winthrop, still stand today, silent monuments to the past and little changed in almost one hundred years.

Winthrop, still stands today, as a monument to the past gone by

While its inhabitants may have abandoned the town, memories of Old Molson's glory days still linger in the weathered buildings of a ghost town that just refuses to give up the ghost

We invite you to come step back in time on a Wild West ghost town adventure, and experience for yourself the history of Northeastern Washington. It’s an experience you won’t soon forget.

AENEAS-Community Established Around 1908. Location: 21 Miles Southwest Of Republic, On West Fork Of San Poil River. Center Sec. 8, T35N , R31E.

ALMA-Community Established Around 1888. Location: SW/NE SEC. 17, T33N, R26E. Town Platted August 20, 1904. On Site Of Present Day Okanogan.

ANGLIN-Community Established Around 1902. Location: On Bonaparte Creek, Eight And One Half Miles Southwest Of Tonasket NW/NE SEC. 2 T36N,R28E,SW/SE SEC. 34, T37N,R28E.

ANTOINE-Community Established Around 1908. Location: 6 Miles Northeast Of Tonasket SW/SW SEC. 32, T38N, R28E.

BARRON-Community Established Around 1893. Location: West Side Of Hart’s Pass. About 3 Miles From The Cascade Summit.

BECK-Community Established Around 1906. Location: On Loop Loop Creek, About 11 Miles By Road West Of Okanogan, About 9 Miles Northeast Of Malott NE/SE SEC. 17, T33N, R25E. Not Much Ever Existed Here.

BODIE-Community Established Around 1898. Location: On Toroda Creek 4 Miles North Of Old Toroda, 15 Miles Northeast Wauconda SW SEC. 3, T38N, R31E.

BOLSTER-Community Established Around 1898. Location: 2 Miles North Of Chesaw On Meyers Creek, 2 Miles From The Canadian Line NW/SE SEC. 9, T40N, R30E.

BONAPARTE-Community Established Around 1903. Location: About 17 Miles Northeast Of Tonasket, 3 Miles West Of Havillah, On Antoine Creek NW/ NE SEC. 2, T38N, R28E.

BREWSTER-Community Established Around 1903. Location: On Great Northern Railway, 7 Miles Northeast Of Pateros, 15 Miles Southwest Of Malott, On West Shore Of Columbia River, 5 Miles Below The Mouth Of The Okanogan River NE SEC.14, T30N, R24E.

CARLTON-Community Established Around 1907. Location: In The Methow Valley 12 Miles Northwest Of The Town Of Methow. SW/NE SEC. 29, T32N, R22E.

CHAPAKA-Community Established Around 1895. Location: 13 Miles North Of Loomis, 35 Miles West Of Oroville About One Half Mile West Of Similkameen River.

CHESAW-Community Established Around 1898. Location: 11 Miles Southeast Of Molson SW SEC. 21, NW SEC. 28, T40N, R30E.

CHANCELLOR-Community Established Around 1872. Location: Slate Creek Area, Hart’s Pass, Methow Valley.

CIRCLE CITY-Community Established Around 1907. Location: Halfway Between Oroville And Molson, On Nine Mile Road.

CLOVER-Community Established Around 1892. Location: On Salmon Creek, Three And One Half Miles Northeast Of Okanogan NE SEC. 36, T34N, R25E. Not Much Ever Existed Here.

CONCONULLY-Community Established Around 1888. Location: 15 Miles Northwest Of Omak, On Salmon Creek SW SEC. 6, T35N, R25E. The Settlement Was First Called "Salmon City."

COULEE DAM-Community Established Around 1934. Location: On North Columbia Riverbank Beside Grand Coulee Dam. NW SEC. 6, T28N, R31E.

DISAUTEL-Community Established Around 1919. Location: 15 Miles Southeast Of Omak, Center SEC. 13, T33N, R28E.

ELMER CITY-Community Established Around 1939. Location: 3 Miles North Of Coulee Dam Village, On East Shore Of Columbia W/NW/SW SEC. 20, T29N, R31E. Platted As "Elmertown" March 2, 1937.

EPLEY-Community Established Around 1906. Location: On Pogue Flat, 2 Miles Northwest Of Omak NW SEC. 27, T34N, R26E.

GILBERT-Community Established Around 1909. Location: Twisp River Valley.

GOLD HILL-Camp Founded Around 1880. Location: On Gold Hill 6 Miles Due West Of Loomis.

GOLDEN-Community Established Around 1889. Location: 6 Miles Southwest Of Oroville On Northwest Corner Of Wannacut Lake, SE/NE SEC. 11, T39N, R26E.

HASSAN-Community Established Around 1910. Location: Sprang Up In The Pine Creek Area About 15 Miles Southwest Of Tonasket. SW SEC. 25, T37N, R25E.

HAVILLAH-Community Established Around 1905. Location: 20 Miles Southeast Of Oroville Near Head Of Antoine Creek SW SEC. 32, T39N, R29E.

IVES-Community Established Around 1896.
Location: On The Columbia River At The Northeast Edge Of Present Day Pateros NE SEC. 36 T30N, R23E. This Was Called "Ives Landing" Also "Central Ferry."

KARTAR-Community Established Around 1922. Location: About 32 Miles Northwest Of Grand Coulee Village, About 9 Miles South Of Omak Lake SW SEC. 34, T31N, R28E.

KIPLING-Community Established Around 1901. Location: About 9 Miles Southwest Of Chesaw On Tonasket Creek NW/NE SEC. 5, T39N, R29E.

KNOB HILL-Community Established Around The Early 1900s. Location: About 10 Miles Southwest Of Chesaw.

LOOMIS-Community Established Around 1891. Location: 16 Miles Northwest Of Tonasket On Sinlahekin Creek Center SEC. 1, T38N, R25E. Originally Called "Loomistown."

LOOP LOOP-Community Established Around 1888. Location: 8 Miles South Of Conconully SE/SE/NW SEC.31, T35N, R25E. Loop Loop Was The First Town In Okanogan County To Be Platted, August 14, 1888.

MALOTT-Community Established Around 1890. Location: 15 Miles Northeast Of Brewster, 9 Miles Southwest Okanogan, On Okanogan River At Mouth Of Loop Loop Creek SW/SW SEC. 9, T32N, R25E.

MAZAMA-Community Established Around 1900. Location: 14 Miles Northwest Of Winthrop On The Methow River SE SEC. 25, T36N, R19E.

METHOW-Community Established Around 1894. Location: On Methow River, 9 Miles Northwest Of Pateros NW SEC. 2, T30N, R22E.

MISSION-Established As St. Mary’s Mission Around 1889. LOCATION: About 7 Miles Southeast Of Omak On Omak Creek Center SEC. 9, T33N, R27E.

MOLSON-Community Established Aroud 1900. Location: 15 Miles Northeast Of Oroville Center SEC. 8, T40N, R29E.

MONSE-Community Established Around 1916. Location: On Okanogan River, 7 Miles Northeast Of Brewster, On West Side Of The River And On Great Northern Railway. Center SEC. 34, T31N, R25E.

NESPELEM-Community Established Around 1899. Location: 34 Miles Southeast Of Omak, 18 Miles North Of Grand Coulee, On Nespelem River SW SEC. 19, NW SEC. 30 T31N, R31E, SE SEC. 24. NE SEC. 25, T31N, R30E.

NIGHTHAWK-Community Established Around 1902. Location: On Great Northern Railway, 12 Miles West Of Oroville, 12 Miles North Of Loomis, On Similkameen River NW SEC. 13, T40N, R25E.

NINE MILE-The Nine Mile community was located west of Molson on what is known today as Nine Mile Road.

OKANOGAN-Community Established Orignally As "Alma" About 1888. Location: 4 Miles Southwest Of Omak, On Great Northern Railway, 9 Miles Northeast Of Malott, At Junction Of Salmon Creek With The Okanogan River. NW SEC. 16, T33N, R26E.

OKANOGAN CITY-Community Established Around 1860. Location: It Was Reportedly On The North Side Of The Similkameen River, Somewhere Between Nighthawk And Shanker’s Bend.

OLEMA-Community Established Around 1896. Location: Seven And One Half Miles West Of Malott On Chiliwhist Creek NE SEC. 10, T32N, R24E.

OMAK-Community Established Around 1902. Location: On Great Northern, 4 Miles North Of Okanogan On West Bank Of The Okanogan River S SEC. 26, NW SEC. 35, T34N, R26E.

OPHIR-Community Established Around 1890. Location: On Great Northern Railway, 5 Miles South Of Malott On The West Side Of The Okanogan River NW SEC. 5, T31N, R25E.

OROVILLE-Community Established Around 1893. Location: On Great Northern Railway, 16 Miles North Of Tonasket, 4 Miles South Of The Canadian Line, At The Southern End Of Osoyoos Lake From Which Flows The Okanogan River . E SEC. 28, T40N, R27E.

PATEROS-Community Established Around 1895. Location: On Great Northern Railway, 19 Miles Northeast Of Chelan, 30 Miles Southwest Of Okanogan, At Junction Of Methow And Columbia Rivers. SW SEC. 36, T30N, R23E.

PONTIAC RIDGE-Community Established Around 1903-1904. Location: Southwest Of Chesaw On Pontiac Ridge.

RIVERSIDE-Community Established Around 1900. Location: On The Okanogan River, 7 Miles North Of Omak. Center SEC. 25, T35N, R26E.

ROBINSON-Community Established Around 1900. Location: 9 Miles Northwest Of Mazama At The Junction Of Robinson Creek With The West Fork Of The Methow River, On Harts Pass Road. SE SEC. 36, T37N, R18E.

RUBY-Community Established Around 1888. Location: 7 Miles Southeast Of Conconully. SE/SW SEC. 29, T35N, R25E.

RUSSELLVILLE-Community Established Around 1908. Location: In The Hills Up Aeneas Creek, In The Aeneas Valley.

SHERIDAN-Community Established Around 1897. Location: Sheridan Mountain, East Of Toroda.

SILVER-Community Established Around 1890. Location: 5 Miles Southeast Of Twisp On The Methow River NW/SW SEC. 35, T33N, R22E. About Three Quarters Of A Mile From Where Beaver Creek Joins The Methow River.

SWANSEA-Community Established Around 1892. Location: Upriver About 6 Miles From Virginia City And 2 Miles Beyond The Mouth Of The Okanogan River. NW/NW SEC. 17, NE/NE SEC. 18, T30N, R25E.

SYNAREP-Community Established Around 1908. Location: Tunk Valley, Just Above Where The County Road Crossed Tunk Creek.

SQUAW CREEK-Community Established Around 1889. Location: Methow Valley, One Mile Up Its Namesake Creek.

TORODA-Community Established Around 1897. Location: 4 Miles Northeast Of Wauconda.

TONASKET-Community Established Around 1892. Location: 24 Miles North Of Omak 16 Miles South Of Oroville, 40 Miles West Of Republic On The Okanogan River And Great Northern Railway. SEC. 16, T37N, R27E.

TWISP-Community Established Around 1898. Originally Known As "Gloversville" In 1897. Location: On Methow River, 34 Miles Northwest Of Pateros . Common Corner SEC.’S 7,8,17 And 18, T33N, R22E.

VIRGINIA CITY-Community Established Around 1893. Orginally Known As "Virginia Bills." Location: At The North End Of The Present Bridge Over The Columbia River At Brewster And Now A Part Of Brewster. SW/SW SEC. 14, T30N, R24E.

WAUCONDA-Community Established Around 1898. Location: 22 Miles Northeast Of Tonasket, 17 Miles Northwest Of Republic. NE SEC. 10, T37N, R30E. This Is One And One Half Miles Southwest Of The Site Of Old Wauconda.

WEHESVILLE-Community Established During The 1880s And 1890s. Location: Wannicut Lake Area, In A Remote Canyon Valley.

WINTHROP-Community Established Around 1890. Location: 44 Miles Northwest Of Pateros At Forks Of Methow and Chewuch Rivers. SW SEC. 2, T34N, R21E.